A Parent’s Guide to Solvent Abuse

I recently attended a course at the local Children’s Centre on Solvent Abuse.  Obviously not to learn how to do it, but to find out how to spot the signs if you suspect that your child might be partaking in this activity.  Curly is of course only 8 and Baby Bean 19 mths now so I don’t suspect they are having anything to do with solvents but it COULD happen to ANY FAMILY, ANY CHILD!  So my theory is better to know the signs too early than too late.

What follows below are the handouts which we were given on our course.  It has been thoroughly researched so please take this seriously.

What is VSA?

VOLATILE SUBSTANCE ABUSE

Solvent Abuse is defined as:

The deliberate inhalation of a gas or fumes given off at room temperature from substances for its intoxicating effect.

Short Term Effects

·         Depression of breathing

·         Frequent headaches

·         Mood swings

·         Cardiac arrhythmia

·         Anoxia – low oxygen in the blood levels

·         Cerebral depressant

·         Conjunctivitis

·         Cough

·         Hangover symptoms

Death can occur due to the following:

Heart Failure – This is when the heart becomes over sensitive to adrenaline and beats ineffectively.  If the “sniffing” is followed by exertion or excitement, the heart can’t cope and stops.  Some aerosol sprays freeze the organs, which can result in the lungs and airways producing fluids – this carries serious additional risks.

Choking – There is also a risk of choking on vomit, caused when the body is trying to get rid of unwanted substances.  However, if someone is unconscious after inhaling a solvent, the person’s airways are likely to become blocked, which could suffocate him or her to death.

Accidents – fatal or serious – Accidents can occur when someone is “high” or hallucinating.  A user may imagine that he or she can jump from great heights, or stop a speeding train.  Someone inhaling alone could drown if falling into water.  Many deaths result from suffocation because the solvents are inhaled from plastic bags.  There is also the risk of burns, as many of these products are highly flammable and can explode.

Recent History

Late 1940’s            First known outbreak of Gasoline sniffing in the USA

1950’s                   Reports of deliberate inhalation of Gasoline fumes in the USA, Australia, India and UK

1968                      29 countries passed Anti Glue sniffing legislation

1970’s                    Punk era – solvents widely used

1983                      Statistics were not collected until now in any uniform way

2005                      Statistics suggest no reported change in the amount of solvent related deaths over the past 20 years

Young people who have been offered individual drugs, by age

Type of Drug11 Years12 Years13 Years14 Years15 Years
Total Cannabis4%8%19%37%52%
Ecstasy1%2%5%10%17%
Heroin1%3%6%7%9%
Cocaine2%4%7%10%16%
Amphetamines1%2%4%10%16%
Volatile Substances7%9%15%19%21%

Figures from a Dept of Health Research Document March 04  (10,000 pupils – 313 schools

Methods of Solvent Abuse Are Known As

Sniffing or Snorting – breathing in a substance directly from its container

Huffing – placing a rag soaked in the substance over the nose and mouth and inhaling.  For example, a scarf worn around the neck, socks, towels, ties, toilet rolls, clothing.

Bagging – pouring the substance into a plastic bag/bottle and breathing in the fumes

Why use VSA?

·         Solvents unlike other drugs are legal

·         Aren’t physically addictive

·         Thrills and pleasure

·         Large surface areas of the lungs means the effects reach the brain faster

·         Experimentation

·         Peer pressure/influence

·         Medicinal

·         Depression

·         Accessibility

·         Boredom

·         To shock

·         Not seen as a drug

·         Casual use

·         Away from the family

·         On holiday

·         It’s free/cheap

·         Trauma

·         At a party

·         To be different

·         With family members

·         To be the same

·         Social activity

·         Relationship to drug abuse

·         Nothing else

·         No drugs available

·         The effects/toxicity

·         Dangers unknown

Immediate Effects of Solvent Abuse

·         Runny eyes & nose

·         Spots/sores around the mouth

·         Smelly breath

·         Blackout

·         Difficulties breathing

·         Feeling sick

·         Chronic headache

·         Euphoria

·         Blurred Vision

·         Inhibitions  lowered

·         Numbness

·         Accidents

·         Vagus nerve damage (Vaso-Vagal)

·         Hallucinations

·         Drowsy

·         Light headed

·         Acting drunk/drunkenness

·         Buzzing in the ears

·         High

·         Clumsy/uncoordinated

·         Death

Hallucination

Hallucinations are abnormal sensory perceptions that occur whilst a person is awake and conscious.  Some common hallucinations are hearing voices when no one has spoken, seeing patterns, lights, beings or objects that aren’t there, or feeling a crawling sensation on the skin.  Hallucinations related to smell or taste are rare.

 

 

Withdrawal

Tolerance to a substance may develop but psychological and physical withdrawal symptoms have only been found in a few cases.  Withdrawal symptoms may include:

·         Lack of sleep

·         Stomach cramps

·         Irritability

·         Facial “ticks”

·         May take weeks to occur or subside

Long Term Damage

Volatile substances are absorbed by the fatty tissue and certain products if used everyday can damage:

·         The brain

·         Optic nerve

·         Nervous system (peripheral)

·         Liver

·         Kidney

·         Lungs

·         Testicles

·         Hearing

·         Mental health

Some signs and symptoms of VSA use are:

·         A chemical smell on clothing, hair and breath;

·         Empty or damaged butane gas, aerosol or glue containers

           (look for teeth marks on nozzles, towels with white marks on, bags containing glue etc);

·         Disappearance of aerosols, glues etc from around the home;

·         “drunken” behaviour, such as lack of co-ordination and coherence;

·         Changes in sleep patterns;

·         Changes in appetite;

·         Changes in behaviour, e.g. tiredness, irritability, aggressiveness, mood swings;

·         Changes in school performance;

·         Changes in health, e.g. headaches, tummy aches, conjunctivitis, coughs.

Products Used

·         Aerosols/air fresheners

·         Dry cleaning agents

·         Paints, lacquers

·         Thinners and removers

·         Pain relief spray

·         Petrol

·         Halon (BCF) fire extinguishers

·         Some type writer correction fluids

·         Solvent based adhesives

·         Hair spray

·         Nail varnish and nail varnish remover

·         Paint thinners

·         Butane gas cigarette lighters refills

·         Degreasing products

·         Antithetic gases

·         Liquid Petroleum gas (LPG)

·         Toluene

·         Deodorant aerosols

·         Some shoe and metal polish

 

It is difficult to list them all but in the average household there are up to thirty products.  These can be defined by four main groups:

·         Solvents

·         Aerosols

·         Anaesthetics

·         Nitrates

Warning signs on products help you spot the dangerous ones

Pressurised Gases

Most aerosols and all forms of liquefied petroleum gas will carry some form of warning such as “Flammable”, “Do not puncture or incinerate” , “Do not use near fire or flame, etc”.

Flammable Liquids

Usually forms of liquids in metal containers or bottles all will bear highly flammable and in the UK must display a Black Flame on an Orange Background.

Non Flammable Substances

May not be flammable but hints can be gained from the products themselves.  Look out for the following chemicals:-

·         Trichloroethylene

·         Dichloromethane

·         Tetrachloroethylene

The Law

Volatile Substance Misuse is not illegal

The Intoxicating Substances Supply Act of England and Wales makes it an offence to supply any product to anyone under the age of 18.

Supplying anyone if it is believe or known that the product is being used to get high the penalty is a £5,000 fine and six months in prison.

Help and Advice

·         Local GP

·         Buzzz:               07734 277077         07734 277077 or freephone               0808 131 0787         0808 131 0787

·         Frank Re-solv National Freephone Helpline –               0808 800 2345         0808 800 2345 and http://www.sniffing.org.uk/

·         Email: help-line@re-solv.org

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